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歴史フットパス国際人&ガイド養成講座 〔第十六回〕:     第3クール



◎ 充実の英会話講師:井上健夫先生(通訳案内士、東京シティーガイド、商業英語)
Yokohama and Westerners
If you study the history of Yokohama, you will find a number of Westerners stand out, all of whom have contributed to the development of the city. First, Commodore Mathew Perry of the black ship fame suddenly appeared off the shore of Uraga, close to Yokohama in June, 1853 and demanded that Japan’s closed door be opened to the Americans. The following year, the Tokugawa Shogunate signed the US-Japan Peace and Amity Treaty with Perry at Yokohama. This ushered in Japan’s modernization by giving up their more than 200 year seclusion policy.
After the port of Yokohama opened, many Westerners were engaged in the infrastructure of Yokohama. The Meiji Government that took over after the Meiji Restoration hired several western engineers such as Richard Henry Brunton, Edmund Morel, and Henry S. Palmer to lay a steel bridge, pave and widen the roads, install the street lamps, run the railroad, lay the iron water pipes, construct the modern pier, etc. American medical doctors were hired by a few select Japanese hospitals to consult the Japanese patients. Modern buildings and railroad stations were constructed by gifted Western architects. Also some Western women contributed to the education in Yokohama in the early days. Their goal was to establish Christian high-schools particularly designed for female Japanese students. Last but not least, a number of Western merchants and entrepreneurs with no strings attached took advantage of the primitive market in Yokohama in the mid 19th century. For example, an American, William Copeland founded Spring Valley Brewery there to produce beer or “Biazake” for his thirsty customers. The British Robert Clark opened a bakery there to sell English bread to the local people. Richard Riseley Carlisle was an ambitious American who first arrived in Japan in 1864 to perform a circus. Then he long stayed in Yokohama to do many different businesses such as running an inn, offering a horse riding class, organizing theatrical performances, and selling the newly invented ice cream. The above-mentioned business people and many others were very enthusiastic to introduce a lot of western ideas and items to the Japanese since all the products that they offered were quite new to them. Eventually, a number of the Westerners decided to live permanently in Yamate, the upper town of Yokohama. Sadly, however, the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923 forced them to leave Yokohama. A large number of western companies took interest in doing business in Yokohama as well. Included were Jardin Matheson, Walsh Hall, Smith Baker and others who settled down in Yokohama for trade. And, of course, port Yokohama brought in sailors from all over the world. Such international flavor introduced various western ideas and influences at the local bars and restaurants. In this connection, we have the nickname of the professional football team in Yokohama “the Marinos” the Spanish word meaning “sailors”.
Even after World War II, Yokohama was deeply connected with America. In fact, 62% of the requisitioned lands by the US forces were concentrated in Yokohama after the war. General Douglas MacArthur landed at the Atsugi Airport and soon moved to Yokohama to stay at New Grand Hotel before moving to Tokyo to control the war-beaten Japan. Then US Eighth Army commanded by Lieutenant General Robert L. Eichelberger requisitioned the Yokohama customs house and more than 90,000 (precisely 94,094) occupying troops stayed in Yokohama for years. Still six (6) places including the North Dock (= Mizuho Pier) have not been derequisitioned to date. During the period of the Vietnam War, many American soldiers stayed in Yokohama before going to the battle field. They introduced the latest rock music to Yokohama much earlier than Tokyo. Therefore, Yokohama was dubbed as the coolest spot among the rock generation in the late 1960s.
Yokohama, it sounds cool for every generation because of its long standing stylish image owing to the close contact with the Westerners over many historic periods. For Japanese, it is the closest place to the West both physically and mentally as the port is open to the sea which extends to the Western world. One of my friends from Canada who has lived in Japan for several years said to me that he sometimes goes to Yamate (which was once part of the settlement in Yokohama) when he feels homesick because Yamate is so similar to his hometown in both the layout and atmosphere – at times he can hardly tell the difference.
横浜開港後多くの欧米人が横浜の社会基盤整備に係わった。明治維新により政権を担った明治政府はブラントン、モレル、パーマーなど欧米の技術者を雇い、鉄製の橋を架け、道路を舗装、拡張し、街路灯を設置し、鉄道を敷設し、鉄製の水道管を敷き、近代的な港を構築するなど行った。米国人医師は横浜の大きな病院に雇われ日本人の患者を診察した。近代的な建物や駅舎は名うての欧米の建築家によって建てられた。また欧米の女性も開港間もない頃横浜において教育の分野で貢献した。彼らの目的は特に日本の女子に教育の機会を与えるべくキリスト教を礎とする高等教育を授けることであった。最後に大事な点をもう一つあげると、政府と繋がっていない自由な立場の欧米商人及び企業家は19世紀半ばの人の手が及んでいない横浜市場を巧に利用した。例えばアメリカ人ウィリアム・コープランドはスプリング・バレー・ブルワリーを設立し彼の顧客のために”ビアザケ“と呼ばれたビールを醸造、販売した。イギリス人ロバート・クラークはパン屋を開業しイギリスパンを販売した。リチャード・リズレーは野心を持ったアメリカ人であった。最初に日本に足を踏み入れたのは1864年サーカスの団員としてであった。それから横浜に長く滞在し様々な商売を行った。旅館の経営、乗馬クラスの提供、劇場出し物の運営、アイスクリームの販売などが含まれる。上記商売人、企業家及びその他多くの欧米人は西洋の考え、製品を日本人に紹介するのにとても熱心であった。彼らの紹介する製品全てが日本人にとり大変新鮮に映ったからである。こうして多くの欧米人は横浜の住宅地の山手に永住してもよいと考えた。しかし悲しいかな、1923年に起きた関東大震災は彼らを横浜から追いやることになってしまった。(→神戸などに移住) 他方、多くの欧米系会社、企業もまた横浜での商売に興味を抱いた。商売のため横浜に腰を据えたのはジャーディン・マセソン、ウォルシュ・ホール、スミス・ベーカーなどであった。そして、もちろん、港ヨコハマは世界中から船乗りを導いてきた。そんな異国的趣を醸しだしながら、バーやレストランで欧米の情勢がいち早く伝播されていった。このことに関連し、横浜のプロサッカーチームは”マリノス”という愛称をつけているが、スペイン語で船乗りの意味である。


   ● 古街道研究家 道の考古学者 歴史ルポライター   
   ● 歴史古街道団長 歴史古道まちづくりプランナー 歴史計画コンサルタント
   ● 朝日カルチャーセンター東京・横浜・湘南、NHK学園、クラブツーリズムほか
   ● 14講座レギュラー講師 日本フットパス協会理事 1959年東京出身

【主催・お問い合わせ】:歴史フットパス英語ガイドの会 (NPO法人横濱楽座)


作成者: ejrb




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